Deforming arthrosis of the knee in medicine is also called gonarthrosis, this ailment is a degenerative-dystrophic disease.
The disease is formed over a long time, it develops due to the constant load on the knee joint. The disease is more common in women than in men (approximately 2 times).
The first symptoms indicate the development of gonarthrosis - pain in the knee during long walking, while descending stairs, lifting and carrying weights. Such pains, as a rule, are aggravated in cold and wet weather. Over time, the discomfort increases, become permanent.
What it is?
Deforming arthrosis is a disease associated with degenerative-dystrophic changes in cartilage tissue. In the medical literature it has the following names: deforming osteoarthrosis, gonarthrosis.
The process can occur independently (primary defarthrosis), and can be provoked by other diseases (secondary defarthrosis). Treatment of deforming osteoarthritis of the knee joint of any form is a complex and lengthy process, requiring patient patience and accurate medical prescriptions. But before detailing the methods of healing, let's consider the reasons that lead to the emergence of this difficult pathology.
Causes of development
What it is? Like many diseases, osteoarthritis has its starting points, or triggers, thanks to which it begins to develop. Why does deforming arthrosis of the knee joint occur? The reasons leading to its development are as follows:
- Increased load on the supporting joints. Normally, most cases of osteoarthritis develops due to a sedentary lifestyle and the presence of excess body weight. As a paradox, one can determine a rather high percentage of the development of the disease among athletes engaged in complex sports (for example, wrestling or weightlifting). In this case, a deforming arthrosis of the right knee joint most often develops, as weightlifters usually use the right leg as a support.
- The presence of hereditary predisposition. This factor is often detected in families with a burdened hereditary history. The fault is the specific antigen - HBA-27.
- Injuries. Damage to the meniscus, dislocation of the knee joint, fracture of the leg - all this can lead to deformity of the knee, due to which the joint occurs congestion.
The causes of the disease deforming arthrosis can be different and be both hereditary and acquired. Today, the development of pathology threatens almost every seventh person who has reached old age.
Deforming arthrosis of the knee 1, 2, 3 degrees
According to the severity of clinical symptoms and the degree of dysfunction, the following stages of arthrosis of the knee joint are distinguished:
- 1 degree, or stage of initial changes. It is characterized by dull pain in the knee joint that occurs periodically. Pain syndrome occurs after the load on the joint. A slight swelling of the periarticular tissues is possible. Deformity of the joint at this stage is not.
- 2 degree. The pain syndrome is longer, it is also characterized by greater intensity. At the same time, patients note a “crunch” in the knee joint during movement, its stiffness in the mornings, which, however, passes after a short walk. Already at this stage, patients begin to use analgesics. There is a slight limitation when bending and unbending the knee joint.
- 3 degree. It is accompanied by almost constant severe pain in the knee, and in any position, and even at rest. Very often, pains begin to worsen due to changing weather. The mobility of the joint is severely limited, while walking develops lameness. The patient is unable to bend the knee, there is a progressive deformation of the joint.
Signs of osteoarthritis
Typical signs of the disease include:
- joint pain turning into shin;
- increased pain when walking upstairs or prolonged standing;
- stiffness of the joint, feeling of tightness of the skin;
- inability to move normally after sleep or after a long sitting;
- knee swelling and crisp sound when moving;
- the inability of the knee to fully unbend or bend due to pain;
- cessation of pain during rest (only at an early stage).
Symptoms of knee arthrosis deformans
Arguing about how to cure arthrosis of the knee, often talk about the importance of timely diagnosis of the problem.
So, all experts agree that it is much easier to stop the development of the disease, if it was detected at 1 or 2 stages of development, but with a late diagnosis of this disease, it is rather difficult to achieve any significant results during treatment. But the main problem is that in the early stages of the disease manifests itself slightly, because people often just ignore these signs.
Symptoms of deforming arthrosis - the appearance of pain in the joints when walking and the appearance of a crunch during movements. External deformation of the joints develops with a long course of the disease. Inflammation of the periarticular tissues is manifested by 5 classical signs: swelling, pain, redness, increased skin temperature, and limited mobility of the knee joint.
In the initial period of development of arthrosis, pain is “mechanical”. This means that the pain appears or increases mainly in the evening, especially after exercise. In the morning, after a night's rest, the painful sensations decrease or disappear.
Over time, the intensity of the pain gradually increases, the pain does not stop after a night's rest. The appearance of the symptom of "morning stiffness" is characterized by the addition of inflammation of the inner (synovial) lining of the knee joint. In the sore joint there may be a crunch and a crash during movements. Because of the pain expressed, a protective spasm of the muscles develops, it further restricts movements in the affected joints, up to the development of persistent stiffness (contracture).
Unfortunately, one cannot protect oneself from post-traumatic arthrosis, just as trauma cannot be predicted. However, acquired gonoarthrosis can be avoided.
Prevention is always easier than cure. To prevent knee problems, you need:
- Balanced diet. Proteins, trace elements and vitamins should be present in food in sufficient quantities.
- Lead a correct lifestyle and try to get rid of bad habits.
- Maintain weight is normal.
- To exercise were adequate.
- Do not forget about injury prevention when lifting heavy objects and playing sports.
If the diagnosis of gonarthrosis is confirmed by doctors, the most important thing is not to start the disease. Otherwise, it can lead to disability.
How to treat deforming arthrosis of the knee
It is necessary to begin treatment at the first signs of the disease. Eliminating its cause, it is possible to eliminate inflammatory changes, after which there is the likelihood of restoring the lost function of the sore joint.
And it is worth considering that in case of deforming arthrosis, complex treatment is necessary. At the initial stage of the disease - a conservative, aimed primarily at reducing pain and relieving inflammation.
In addition, treatment of the disease should be aimed at reducing morning stiffness and increasing joint mobility, preventing and eliminating impairments in joint function, normalizing the metabolic processes of affected tissues, and slowing further progression of the disease. In more serious cases, surgery is used.
The main methods of treatment of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint include:
- Drug treatment;
- Manual therapy and massage;
- Orthopedic methods;
- Natural methods (medical gymnastics, kinesitherapy, etc.);
- Surgical intervention.
Tactics of treatment depends on the degree of development of arthrosis. Most often used a combined approach based on several techniques.
- Chondroprotectors are used in the first stages of treatment. They restore cartilage tissues and ligaments, a positive effect on the structure of tissues. Give effect with prolonged use, at least 3 months. To enhance blood circulation used vasodilators. They help to avoid narrowing of blood vessels and counteract the occurrence of varicose nodes. Ointments, compresses and massage are effective in addition to the main course of treatment. After several procedures, patients notice a reduction in pain, an increase in the mobility of the joint and a strengthening of the muscles in it.
- When deforming arthrosis of the knee joints in the later stages, treatment is primarily aimed at relieving pain syndrome. Such analgesics are selected that can be taken for a long time without damage to the digestive tract. It is obligatory to wear knee pads. At this stage, it will not be possible to return the initial mobility of the knee, since degenerative changes have become chronic. Therapy begins to be conservative in order to prevent further destruction of the knee and changes in bone tissue. Treatment of deforming arthrosis of the 3rd degree of the knee joint is reduced to eliminating the causes of pathology.
- In the severe stage when the joint is severely affected, another operation is performed - endoprosthetics. The procedure involves replacing a worn joint with an artificial one. Implants have their own service life and after a while it will need re-operation and replacing them with new ones. This operation is more serious than arthroscopy, so there is a chance of side effects (scarring, damage to ligaments). Therefore, arthroplasty is performed when there are no other effective treatment methods and the disease takes on a hard and irreversible nature.
Remember that ignoring the recommendations of the attending physician is the main cause of the disease and often leads to disability of the patient.
Deforming osteoarthritis of the knee requires the patient to follow a special diet. It is aimed both at reducing obesity when present, and at improving the nutrition of cartilage tissues. It is necessary to reduce the number of calories consumed, eat less flour and sweet. It is observed that with weight loss, the symptoms of the disease are reduced.
To maintain the cartilage in a healthy form, you need to eat more proteins, vitamins and minerals. For such patients it will be useful to periodically use jelly, because it is rich in collagen, which is a necessary component of cartilage tissue.
Treatment of folk remedies
With the help of an integrated approach, improvements in well-being can be achieved, even if bilateral deforming arthrosis of the knee joints is diagnosed.
- Tincture of dandelions. Fill with vodka a bottle of yellow dandelion heads. Let the solution stand for a month in a dark corner, strain. Daily at bedtime, rub the affected areas of the knee.
- Compresses of blue clay. A wooden spoon in gauze impose a mixture of clay and water creamy consistency. This compress is applied to the sore knee and held for two hours. Repeat every day with a new clay.
- Treatment with cabbage juice. It is necessary to chop cabbage into pieces with a knife. Then the cabbage mass must be passed through a juicer. At the exit get ready cabbage juice. Next, woolen cloth need to wet cabbage juice and attach to the affected joint as a compress. Regularly repeat the procedure and update the cabbage juice, after 3 days it loses its beneficial properties.
- Compress of horseradish roots. Grind the grated roots of ordinary garden horseradish and put them to steam on a small fire, so that the water does not boil. The resulting composition is put on gauze and put a compress on the knee. Make such compresses for at least a month.
Competently and most importantly, timely prescribed treatment is the key to preventing the patient’s disability.
Gymnastics at home
To maintain the performance of the joints, it is necessary to perform a set of physical exercises aimed at strengthening the muscles and ligaments with perineum. Training time should be 30-40 minutes per day, and this time should be divided into several segments of 10-15 minutes. When performing exercises, a balance should be maintained between the state of rest and the load on the joints.
Many people need to rest their arthritic joints every 4-5 hours, which is necessary for the regeneration of joint cartilage. Exercises to perform smoothly, the amplitude of movements increase gradually. Doing exercises, focus on the sore joint, imagine how blood rushes to the knee and the joint is restored.