Sinusitis is a latent disease, as the symptoms are very common and simple, so in the initial stages it is easy to confuse with ordinary SARS or runny nose.
The process of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses occurs imperceptibly, the main thing is to recognize sinusitis in adults in time and start treatment.
To do this, at home can be used - antibiotics, folk remedies, drops, as well as rinsing the nose with various solutions. The choice of a particular method will depend on the symptoms of the disease.
The main condition under which the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses begins to inflame is a violation of their drainage.
As soon as the opening connecting the nasal passages and the cavity of the maxillary sinuses begins to narrow, the outflow of secretion from the cavities worsens. Even with a slight swelling of the mucous membrane, which is observed during allergic reactions and rhinitis, the drainage of the maxillary sinuses worsens and sinusitis may appear.
The main risk factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
- Obstruction of nasal breathing due to increased nasal conchae, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic diseases.
- Inadequate or untimely treatment of infectious, viral diseases - influenza, ARVI, tonsillitis, rhinitis.
- Chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx - chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis.
- Immune system disorders.
- Congenital or acquired abnormalities of the nasal cavity.
- Allergic predisposition.
- Regular supercooling.
There are three pathogens that can cause disease:
- Viruses. They cause the common cold, in which the amount of mucus in the sinuses increases, thereby causing inflammation - a bacterial component can join it.
- Bacteria. There are several types of these microorganisms that are causative agents of sinusitis. These are Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobes, streptococci, pneumococci, as well as Moraxella catarrhalis and hemophilic infection.
- Fungi. Cause disease in people with weakened immune systems, as well as those with diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, diabetes.
As a rule, the symptoms of the disease are pronounced in the acute course of antritis and hardly noticeable in the chronic form of the disease.
The main signs of acute sinusitis in adults:
- severe runny nose with copious mucus and pus;
- respiratory failure;
- persistent, severe headaches;
- aggravated pains in the nose, especially radiating to the head when bending;
- distressing pain in the eyes, teeth, forehead area;
- constant weakness in the whole body;
- chills, high fever.
Without proper treatment of sinusitis in an adult, the symptoms of the disease can turn into a chronic form.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults
In acute sinus symptoms in adults appear abruptly, along with other signs of a cold - with pain in the forehead, cheeks under the eyes, nasal congestion that do not go away for a week. As a rule, acute sinusitis does not last more than a month.
We list the symptoms that are characteristic of sinusitis:
- In the area of the nose growing unpleasant sensations, which are accompanied by a headache. The pain in the morning is less and becomes stronger in the evening.
- Severe nasal congestion, sometimes with short periods of relief. Difficult breathing and nasal voices.
- Yellow-green discharge from nose during blowing of nose. If outflow from the sinus is difficult, then this symptom may be absent.
- Decreased appetite and poor sleep, despite fatigue.
- Increased body temperature - appears in almost all cases of sinusitis.
- Weakness, drowsiness, loss of appetite are signs of intoxication. There may also be nausea. Vomiting is not characteristic. If there is a headache and there is vomiting that is not associated with food, and before that a copious amount of snuffled out of the nose, immediately seek medical help: this can be a rather dangerous complication of sinusitis - meningitis.
When detecting the first signs of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, it is necessary to turn to an otolaryngologist and begin treatment, since only timely therapy can destroy all links in the chain that causes the inflammatory process.
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis
Without treatment, acute sinusitis can often turn into a chronic form, when the symptoms of the disease become less pronounced, erased. Suspected chronic sinusitis in adults can be in the presence of the following symptoms:
- Decrease or complete loss of smell.
- Constant nasal congestion.
- Headache on the one hand (with a history of this side one or several times had acute sinusitis).
- Tickling, dryness, sore throat when swallowing - these complaints are caused by chronic inflammation of the nasopharyngeal mucosa.
- Periodic pain in the infraorbital region. They are dull in nature, rarely accompanied by fever and intoxication.
- Fatigue, decreased memory, combined with reduced sense of smell.
- Cough for no apparent reason: this may be the only symptom. There is a cough due to the fact that the pharynx is irritated by mucus constantly flowing from the sinus.
With the exacerbation of the chronic stage on the background of colds, symptoms characteristic of acute sinusitis appear - headache, pain in the sinuses when the head is tilted, body temperature rises.
The nature of snot when sinus
Currently, there are three main shades of snot, appearing on the background of the development of sinusitis:
- Green nozzles indicate a strong inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses.
- When a yellow shade occurs in green snot, it is safe to say that antritis is in the acute form of the course of the disease and requires urgent intervention by specialists.
- The appearance of white snot is observed at the initial stage of the development of sinusitis.
At each stage of sinusitis, the color of the snot changes, thanks to which specialists, when carrying out diagnostic measures with high accuracy, can determine the phase of the disease and prescribe the correct and effective treatment.
In order to determine if a patient has sinusitis, the ENT examines the nasal cavity with the help of a rhinoscope. After that, it directs him to X-ray, which will show whether there is accumulation of fluid or purulent secretion inside the paranasal cavities.
In severe cases, the patient may be directed to imaging, which allows to evaluate the pathological changes in the sinuses. To study the causative agents of sinusitis can make a puncture.
Untimely or inadequate treatment of sinusitis leads to complications, the main of which are:
- century abscess;
- cellulite cellulose orbit (leads to blindness);
- brain abscess;
- rhinogenic sepsis;
- inflammation of the lining of the brain - rhinogenic meningitis;
- kidney disease (pyelonephritis) and heart (myocarditis).
Treatment of sinusitis in adults
When symptoms of sinusitis are found in adults, treatment can be carried out in two main ways, depending on the severity of the condition - this is a conservative and surgical method.
- With the conservative method, the patient is taking an antibiotic and other general and local drugs.
- As for the surgical method, then it is assumed that the maxillary sinus is punctured.
In conservative therapy for sinusitis includes:
- The use of antibiotics.
- Local antibacterial therapy (drops, sprays, inhalations are used to eliminate mucosal edema).
- Anti-inflammatory therapy.
- Rinsing with antiseptics, such as furatsilinom.
- The use of physiotherapy (ultraviolet irradiation of the nasal cavity, the effect of high-frequency magnetic field on the paranasal sinuses, etc.).
The treatment of sinusitis is aimed at:
- elimination of swelling of the nasal mucosa;
- timely evacuation of the contents of the maxillary sinuses;
- removal of the inflammatory process;
- normalization of nasal breathing;
- prevent the development of dangerous consequences.
Drugs are selected based on the cause of the disease. It can be antibiotics, antiviral, vasoconstrictor, antihistamines.
What antibiotics to take for antritis in adults
Antibiotics treat sinusitis caused by bacteria and fungi. The viral form is not cured by antibiotics. However, viral sinusitis is often complicated by bacterial infections. The doctor, on the basis of the patient's condition, can immediately prescribe the reception of a broad-spectrum antibiotic even before the results of bacterial seeding of discharge from the nose.
In adults, preference is given to the following drugs:
- Amoxicillin. This antibiotic belongs to the penicillin group. If the patient has malignant blood, lactation or pregnancy, then this drug can not be prescribed.
- Macropene. This antibiotic has a very strong bactericidal action, conducts an active fight against a variety of intracellular microorganisms. When you receive it, you may receive a slight allergic reaction, which is manifested by intestinal upset. When pregnancy is not prescribed.
- Flemoxine Solutab. An antibiotic from the penicillins group that fights aerobic bacteria.
The use of local antibiotics for sinusitis should be combined with the use of vasoconstrictor drops. For example, the drug Otrivin. Otherwise, the effect of treatment will be minimal. In the chronic form of the disease, the same drugs are prescribed, but for a longer period of time.
Operative treatment is started in case of failure of conservative methods. To remove the contents of the maxillary sinus perform puncture, according to the results of the study discharge is prescribed further treatment.
Fungi can be found in the washing liquid, in this case antibiotics are canceled and antifungal treatment is prescribed. When anaerobic bacteria are detected, treatment of the sinuses with oxygen is prescribed.
As a result of washing the nose at home:
- swelling decreases;
- breathing is easier;
- inflammation is extinguished;
- strengthens the protective properties of the shell of the nasal cavity.
For washing, you can use not only furatsilina solution and salt water, but also herbs such as calendula, chamomile, eucalyptus and others. They all have a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect.
Treatment without puncture
- The main method is washing the nose with the Cuckoo device. During 5-7 sessions, the nasal passages are cleaned from mucus, pus.
- Laser heating. As a rule, complements washing procedures. The laser is able to reduce inflammation, destroy pathogens, reduce swelling.
- The use of devices that create negative pressure in the maxillary sinuses, which has a positive effect on the cleansing of the nose.
How to treat sinusitis at home
You can get rid of discomfort by combining medical treatment and folk remedies. How to treat this disease at home? Here are popular recipes.
- It is actively used for antritis Kalanchoe and aloe juice. The juice of the plant to choose from is mixed in equal proportions with vegetable oil, after which the mixture is inserted with tampons in the nostrils. Relief comes quickly enough.
- Beet has a very strong antibacterial effect. By burying a couple of drops of freshly squeezed beet juice into each nostril 4 times a day, you can get rid of antritis quickly and permanently. Before starting the procedure, you should rinse the nose well with saline to get the best effect. In case of a strong burning sensation, the juice can be slightly diluted with saline.
- Chop one fourth of the onions and put them in a gauze bag. They massage the area of the nose and nose. Repeat several times a day. They promise that the maxillary sinuses will be cleared of purulent contents when using such a simple recipe after 10 days.
Nevertheless, it is impossible to consider the popular recipes as a complete therapy. They can be used only as an addition to the main course of treatment, only after prior coordination with the otolaryngologist.