Neutrophils are the most numerous part of leukocytes, whose task is to protect the human body from a variety of infections. They are formed in the bone marrow.
As soon as hostile, pathogenic microorganisms enter the body, neutrophils immediately interact with them: they absorb and digest them, as a result of which they themselves also die (this ability is called phagocytosis). The role of neutrophils in the fight against various infections (especially fungal and bacterial) is difficult to overestimate.
The first response to the disease and becomes the increased formation of neutrophils and their accumulation at the site of infection. We will try to understand why neutrophils are elevated in an adult, which is indicated in each case.
What are the?
Neutrophils in the form of the nucleus are divided into stab and segmented.
- The stab cells are not fully matured cells; in case of anxiety, the bone marrow promptly throws underdeveloped neutrophilic leukocytes into the blood, so an overestimated (more than 6%) or lowered index of band-wrenches is an unequivocal reason to see a doctor.
- Segmental - mature neutrophils, which are the basis of the immune system in the leukocyte formula, their rate in adults is from 30 to 70% of the number of all leukocytes.
The main function of neutrophils is immune activity against bacteria. When a human bacterial infection occurs in humans, segmented neutrophils are the first to participate in the immune response. In the future, there is an increase in the number of neutrophils due to stab. At this point, elevated stab neutrophils are detected in a human blood test.
Neutrophil norm in the blood
Stab neutrophils should be from 1 to 5% of the total number of neutrophils, segmented neutrophils should be from 40 to 68%. The rate should be constant, and can range from 45 to 70%. In children, when they grow, the amount of neutrophils in the blood may increase.
- newborns - 5-12 / 50-70%;
- 2 weeks old - 1-4 / 27-47%;
- age 1 month - 1-5 / 17-30%;
- 1 year old - 1-5 / 45-65;
- 5 years old - 1-4 / 35-55%;
- 6–12 years old — 1–4 / 40–60%;
- adults - 1-4 / 40-60%.
If the number of neutrophils is increased, then this may be an adequate response to a developing infection or the introduction of the virus into the human body. Raising twice - perhaps the beginning of the inflammatory process, a rise in the number of neutrophils tenfold may indicate sepsis.
If the indicators are elevated only in the group of stab-core, then it does not allow to make any clinical conclusions, since such a shift can occur after an overly dense lunch, significant physical overload or psycho-emotional stress.
Causes of elevated neutrophils in the blood of an adult
A condition in which the number of neutrophils increases in the blood is called neutrophilia or neutrophilia. This process can be either localized or generalized or generalized:
- Increase to 10.0 by 109 l - the presence of local, that is, a single inflammation.
- Increase to 20.0 per 109 l - the presence of extensive inflammation.
- Increase to 40.0-60.0 per 109 l - the presence of generalized inflammation, sepsis.
If an adult in the blood neutrophils are elevated, then this is a clear sign of the fight against viruses and bacteria. But each of them has its own specifics. For this reason, experts send people for additional testing. So it is possible to determine the cause of such a change.
If neutrophils in adults are elevated, then this indicates such pathologies:
- Extensive burns.
- Disintegration of tumors.
- Trophic ulcers.
- Diabetic coma.
- Allergic reactions.
- Parasitic diseases.
- Heart attacks (lung, myocardium, brain).
- Osteomyelofibrosis, leukemia, erythremia.
- Skin diseases (dermatitis, psoriasis and others).
- Severe renal failure.
- Inflammatory processes: rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism.
- Anemia hemolytic, which can occur as a result of significant blood loss.
- Poisoning by insect poison, turpentine, carbon dioxide, lithium preparations, heparin.
- Taking certain medications (adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticosteroids and others).
- Infections of bacterial origin: pneumonia, sore throat, scarlet fever, phlegmon, abscesses, osteomyelitis, suppurative meningitis, salpingitis, acute cholecystitis, purulent pleurisy, thrombophlebitis, peritonitis, appendicitis, otitis, and others).
If in the absence of a specific disease in an adult, a deviation from the norm of segmented neutrophils is found, then you should not panic right away. Such results can not 100% talk about the presence of pathology. The doctor will order a second blood donation. If the result is the same, then the actions of the specialist will be aimed at eliminating the cause that provoked a deviation from the norm.
Band neutrophils increased
What does this mean? This process can be caused by the following diseases:
- after surgery;
- drug sensitivity;
- exposure to high or low temperatures;
- benign or malignant tumors.
If the blood neutrophils are elevated in the blood test, this may indicate the consequences of severe blood loss or high physical activity of the body.
Segmented neutrophils increased
What does it mean? Changes in the blood composition may indicate:
- the existence of tumors, foot diseases;
- the development of infections (spirochetosis, mycosis, tick-borne encephalitis);
- nephropathy and urinary system impairment;
- inflammation in gout, arthritis, rheumatism, pancreatitis, tissue damage.
When segmented cells in the blood are elevated, this may indicate the presence in the body of an acute infectious disease, the presence of a malignant tumor or intoxication, which is characterized by the accumulation of microbes and the products of their activity.
What triggers an increase in these elements in children
In children, within the normal range, a greater number of stab neutrophils are allowed. However, the child may be provoked from going beyond the normal range:
- helminthic invasions, especially enterobiasis and ascariasis;
- acute intestinal diseases;
- chronic tonsillitis and adenoids;
- polyps in the nasal cavity;
- teething period;
- lactose intolerance and other forms of food allergies.
What to do if neutrophils are elevated in blood
There is no separate treatment for lowering the level of neutrophils in the blood, and in no case should this be done. The main task of the doctor in detecting elevated neutrophils is to determine the underlying cause, the underlying disease that caused this phenomenon.
Sometimes a change in the level of neutrophils turns out to be almost the only alarming symptom that allows one to guess that something is going wrong in the body.