Sitrolide is a semisynthetic antibiotic belonging to macrolide drugs.
It is characterized by a bacteriostatic antimicrobial effect: it blocks the ability of bacteria to multiply. If a high concentration of the active substance is created in the pathological focus, then it acquires a bactericidal effect - all bacteria that are at different stages of growth completely die. An antibiotic, binding to the ribosome of bacteria, inhibits protein synthesis in the cells of pathogenic microorganisms, which causes their death.
On this page you will find all the information about Zitrolid: complete instructions for use for this drug, average prices in pharmacies, complete and incomplete analogues of the drug, as well as reviews of people who have already used Zitrolide. Want to leave your opinion? Please write in the comments.
Clinical and pharmacological group
The macrolide antibiotic is a representative of azalides.
Pharmacy sales terms
It is released on prescription.
How much does nitrolide cost? The average price in pharmacies is about 300 rubles.
Release form and composition
Dosage form - capsules: size №0, with a white body and a lid - yellow or orange-yellow; the contents are white to white with a creamy shade (6 packs in blisters, 1 pack in a carton pack; 10 packs in blisters, 10 packs in a carton pack).
- active ingredient: azithromycin, in 1 capsule - 250 mg.
- additional substances: microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate.
- shell composition: gelatin, azorubine, titanium dioxide, ponso 4R, quinoline yellow.
Dosage form of Zitrolid forte capsules: No. 00, hard gelatinous, with a white body and an orange lid, filled with lumpy powder from white with a yellowish tinge to white (3 pcs. In blister packs of PVC film and foil, in a pack) from cardboard 1 or 2 packs).
Contains 1 capsule:
- active ingredient: azithromycin dihydrate (in terms of azithromycin) - 500 mg;
- auxiliary components: microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate;
- capsule: titanium dioxide (E171), dye yellow sunset (E110), gelatin.
Azithromycin is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is active against these types of microorganisms:
- Gram-negative bacteria (when stained by Gram bacteria have a pink color) - Hemophilus bacillus (Haemophilus influenzae), snails (moraxella catarrhalis), cough-droplets and parakoklyuschik (Bordetella perperussis, Bordetella parapertussis), legionella (aphidomyphitis bugs), legionella painters, aphidomynsitis; intestines (Helicobacter pylori), anaerobic pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides bivius), gonorrhea pathogen (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), gardnerella (Gardnerella vaginalis).
- Gram-positive cocci (bacteria of a round shape, when stained by the Gram are purple) - streptococci and staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus agalactiae).
Azithromycin is also active against bacteria with a predominantly intracellular type of parasitism - chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pneumoniae), and ureaplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum).
Indications for use
What helps? Due to the wide spectrum of antimicrobial action, the use of Zitrolide is indicated in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory pathologies:
- Urinary system (urethritis, cervicitis);
- Skin and soft tissues, in the case of secondary infected dermatoses, erysipelas, impetigo;
- Lower respiratory system, including bronchitis, atypical or bacterial pneumonia;
- Throat, ear, nose, upper respiratory tract. The drug is prescribed for sinusitis, purulent tonsillitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis media;
- Gastrointestinal tract as part of the complex therapy of diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori.
According to the instructions to Zitrolid, the use of the drug has a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment of scarlet fever and borreliosis (Lyme disease).
- severe hepatic / renal failure;
- children up to 12 years;
- individual hypersensitivity to azithromycin or other macrolide drugs.
Relative (diseases / conditions that require special caution when using Zitrolid in connection with the risk of complications):
- severe impaired renal or hepatic function (in pediatrics);
During the period of therapy with the drug Zitrolid, activities that require high concentration and speed of psychomotor reactions should be avoided.
Use during pregnancy and lactation
Use of Zitrolid during pregnancy is permissible only when the benefit to the mother exceeds the risk to the fetus, because azithromycin crosses the placenta.
In the case of taking antibiotics during breastfeeding, lactation should be temporarily abandoned.
Instructions for use
The instructions for use indicated that Zitrolid intended for oral administration.
Capsules should be swallowed whole 60 minutes before or 2 hours after a meal. Capsules are recommended to drink plenty of drinking water. The daily dose of the drug, as a rule, is prescribed for 1 reception. Azithromycin is recommended to take at regular intervals.
The duration of therapy and the dose of the drug is determined by the doctor.
- In infectious diseases of the skin and soft tissues, as well as the initial stage of Lyme disease, adults usually receive 1000 mg of azithromycin on the first day of therapy, then proceed to receive 500 mg of azithromycin per day. The duration of the course is 5 days, the total course dose of 3000 mg of azithromycin.
- In infectious diseases of the lower and upper respiratory tract adults, as a rule, 500 mg of azithromycin per day are prescribed. The duration of therapy is 3 days, the total course dose is 1500 mg of azithromycin.
- Acne vulgaris (acne vulgaris): 500 mg per day for three days, then 500 mg per day once a week for nine weeks. The first weekly dose is taken seven days after taking the first daily dose, on the eighth day from the start of the course, the next 8 weekly doses are taken at intervals of seven days;
- With ulcerative lesions of the stomach and duodenum associated with Helicobacter pylori, adults usually receive 1000 mg of azithromycin per day in combination with other drugs. The duration of azithromycin is 3 days.
- In acute uncomplicated diseases of the genitourinary system, adults usually receive 1000 mg of azithromycin once.
When skipping the next dose of azithromycin should be taken as soon as possible, the next dose in this case is taken after 24 hours.
Most often (in about 3-5% of cases) when taking Zitrolida abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea.
Less than 1% of adult patients report:
- Increased fatigue;
- Rash, angioedema, photosensitivity;
- Drowsiness, headache, dizziness;
- Nephritis, in women - vaginal candidiasis;
- Vomiting, melena, flatulence, cholestatic jaundice, increased activity of hepatic transaminases;
- Chest pain, palpitations.
In children during the use of the drug sometimes occur:
- Neurosis, hyperkinesia, anxiety, sleep disorders, in the treatment of otitis media - headache;
- Itching, urticaria, conjunctivitis;
- Constipation, anorexia, change in taste, gastritis.
If you take too much of a dose, severe diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and temporary hearing loss occur. There is no specific antidote azithromycin. Symptomatic overdose treatment.
With a significant excess of the therapeutic dose of Zitrolid capsules, symptoms of overdose develop, which include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, temporary hearing loss, marked dizziness.
Treatment is the abolition of the drug and symptomatic therapy.
With prolonged use of azithromycin may develop pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, as in the form of mild diarrhea, and severe colitis. With the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with azithromycin, as well as 2 months after the end of therapy, pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile should be excluded.
Caution should be used in patients with mild and moderately impaired liver function due to the possibility of the development of fulminant hepatitis and severe liver failure. If there are symptoms of abnormal liver function, such as rapidly increasing asthenia, jaundice, dark urine, bleeding tendency, hepatic encephalopathy, azithromycin therapy should be discontinued and a study of the functional state of the liver should be conducted.
In light and moderate renal dysfunction (CK> 40 ml / min), azithromycin therapy should be carried out with caution under the control of the state of kidney function.
- Azithromycin poorly interacts with cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.
- When applied simultaneously with lovastatin, cases of rhabdomyolysis are described.
- With simultaneous use of rifabutin increases the risk of developing neutropenia and leukopenia.
- With the simultaneous use of azithromycin with warfarin, cases of enhancing the effects of the latter are described.
- With simultaneous use with disopyramide described the case of ventricular fibrillation.
- It was found that the simultaneous use of terfenadine and macrolides can cause arrhythmia and prolongation of the QT interval.
- With the simultaneous use of disturbed metabolism of cyclosporine, which increases the risk of adverse and toxic reactions caused by cyclosporine.
- Given the theoretical possibility of ergotism, the simultaneous use of azithromycin with ergot alkaloid derivatives is not recommended.
- Simultaneous use of atorvastatin (10 mg daily) and azithromycin (500 mg daily) did not cause changes in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin (based on the analysis of inhibition of HMC-CoA reductase). However, in the post-registration period, there were separate reports of cases of rhabdomyolysis in patients receiving azithromycin and statins at the same time.
- Simultaneous use of azithromycin (a single dose of 1000 mg and repeated administration of 1200 mg or 600 mg has a slight effect on pharmacokinetics, including kidney excretion of zidovudine or its glucuronide metabolite. However, the use of azithromycin caused an increase in the concentration of phosphorylated zidovudine, a clinically active metabolite in peripheral mononuclear cells blood. The clinical significance of this fact is unclear.
- Simultaneous use of macrolide antibiotics, incl. azithromycin, with P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, leads to an increase in serum P-glycoprotein substrate concentration. With simultaneous use of digoxin or digitoxin with azithromycin, a significant increase in the concentration of cardiac glycosides in the blood plasma and the risk of glycoside intoxication may occur.
We picked up some reviews of people on the drug Zitrolid:
- Sasha. Good antibiotic. Quickly relieved of bronchitis, although they do not specifically advertise it. When I went to the pharmacy to buy, I thought that the doctor had put in some regular fashion thing. However, no. Everything worked out quickly and well.
- Marina. The nitrolide helped me in the treatment of frontal sinusitis. The condition was such that the headache did not subside for a minute, the smell was lost and the taste buds did not work. After going to the ENT doctor, Zitrolide was prescribed. After a day of taking the drug - the improvements were obvious. After 3 days, no signs of frontitis remained. Very good and effective antibiotic. Convenient reception. For myself, did not notice any side effects. The price is reasonable. Now in the first-aid kit, Zitrolide takes its place of honor, as of all antibiotics for the treatment of frontitis it helps to quickly and easily cope with the disease.
- Svetlana There was a very strong chest cough, with turning the lungs on sensations. After taking the first capsule, it immediately became easier, on the 3rd day it was almost completely gone, even she was surprised, did not think that this could be cured so quickly. So the big respect pills. Of the side effects were a one-time not strong diarrhea on the first day and second day a weak half-hour hearing loss, or rather just a little congestion, as in an airplane.
For the main active substance analogues of Zitrolid are such drugs as:
To analogs of Zitrolid similar by the mechanism of action, as well as belonging to the same pharmacological group include:
Before using analogues consult your doctor.
Which is better, nitrolide or makropen?
These drugs are narrow spectrum antibiotics belonging to the macrolide group. They differ only in the main active ingredients: Zitrolid contains azithromycin, and Makropen is based on medical cells. Given the fact that Zitrolid is a drug of a new generation, it is better to choose it.
Storage conditions and shelf life
The drug should be stored at temperatures up to 25 ºC in a dry, dark place.
Shelf life of capsules 250 mg - 3 years, capsules 500 mg - 2 years.